The American Civil War – OverSimplified (Part 1)

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new character pin. Link in the description down below. Okay, Mrs. Lincoln, this is it. One last push and we're done. (grunting) Nine months and four days ago. My father brought forth
upon my mother himself and gave to her a child
conceived in a shack in Kentucky and dedicated to the proposition that I will drink num-nums from a bottle and do little poo poos in my pantses for the next two to three years. Now, what is it babies do again? Oh yeah. (cries loudly) I am not touching that. Abraham Lincoln grew up with his relatively poor family in Kentucky, eventually moving to Indiana, and finally, Illinois. He read a lot of books,
worked a lot of jobs, wrote some questionable poetry and finally entered the law profession.

Despite being self-taught, he turned out to be a pretty
clever and astute lawyer. In one case, a guy claimed he
witnessed a murder at night and Lincoln was like, "How
could you have seen anything in the dark?" "There was a bright full moon." "A what?" "A bright full moon." "Can you say that again, please?" "There was a bright full moon." "A dim half moon?" "No, a bright full moon." "That's funny because
according to this Almanac "there was a dim half moon that night which makes you a liar!" "Uh… "Well, I got a bright full
moon for y'all right here." "Now that's what I call a rebuttal." (claps loudly) – [Narrator] Lincoln and his cheekbones, weren't only interested in law however, he also dabbled in the world of politics, serving as a legislator in both local and national assemblies.

And what a time it was. Not even 100 years after
the founding fathers wrote, all men are created equal. Politicians were already asking, yeah, but what does that mean exactly? It means all men. Yeah, but what does that mean… Exactly? And not just that states' rights versus the federal government. What are the executive
powers of the president? Is cereal a soup? The founding fathers left
some of these questions perhaps a little too
open to interpretation. And the biggest question
of them all was slavery, an ugly mark, and what should have been a revolutionary new nation
based on liberty and democracy. Thomas Jefferson had written
a condemnation of slavery in the declaration of independence, but out of fear of losing
Southern State support, it was removed. Hey guys, do you think
leaving this a little vague will create any unforeseen
problems in the future? Cannonball. And those unforeseen problems were now beginning to
rear their ugly heads.

As the nation developed the
North and the South developed along two very different lines and two very different
cultural identities emerged. Northern cities began
rapidly industrializing while the Southern climate
allowed for large plantations of labor-intensive crops. As a result, one half of the
country didn't rely on slaves while the other half
had become economically dependent on them. In 1793, Eli Whitney's cotton
gin caused the slave trade in the South to explode, while in the North a growing
abolitionist movement was taking root. A general mistrust began to
develop between the North and the South. As Northerners felt the
South were hell bent on expanding slavery and fear
spread throughout the South that the North wanted to
take their slaves away.

In 1819, there were 11 free states and 11 slave states, a perfect balance, a happy medium, a harmonious relationship. Hey guys, nice to meet you. I'm Missouri, and I would
like to become the 23rd state. Hey buddy, welcome to the nation. We'll be happy to accept
you as a free state. No, you don't. You're trying to get one over on us. Missouri is gonna be a slave state. Okay, listen why don't
we just ask Missouri what it wants to be… Slave state. Well, then allow me to introduce to you the newest freshest state
on the scene, Maine.

Hey, you can't do that. And you can't have any more
slaves things about this line. What? The issue of slavery is solved and it will never come up again. A few years later, it came up again. You see, as America expanded westward, each new state or territory that was added threatened to up and the delicate
balance between the slave and free States. If one faction managed
to outnumber the other, it could gain an easy majority
and force its own ideals on the opposing side leaving a huge portion of the population, feeling spiteful and depressed.

For awhile compromises,
kick the can down the road and kept the volatile balance in check as new free and slave states
were roughly added in Paris but then one landmass mass
state just had to barge in and ruin everything as usual. (gun shots) The addition of Texas
saw the United States enter into a war with
Mexico, which they won, gaining a huge amount of land out West and creating even more problems. Hey guys, nice to meet you. I'm California and I would
like to become the 31st state. Hey buddy, welcome to the nation. We'll be happy to accept you
as a Southern slave state.

No, you don't. You're trying to get one over on us. California is gonna be a free state. Okay, listen, why don't we just ask
California what it wants to be and we can… Free state. Well, then allow me to introduce to you the territories of New Mexico and Utah able to freely vote
for slavery themselves. Hey, you can't do that! And we can enter Northern
territory anytime we want to recapture escaped slaves! What? The issue of slavery is solved and it will never come up again. (crowd shouts loudly) A few years later, it came up again. In 1854 a democratic Senator from Illinois wanted to build a really
cool Chichi train here and proposed the territories
of Kansas and Nebraska be created open to slavery, even though they were clearly above the Missouri compromise line. Obviously the Northern
States were like, "Hell no." But the Southern Democrats
who controlled Congress at the time were like,
"Well, if you love liberty and democracy so much, then you should let them
vote on whether slavery should be legal or not." And so it was.

Huge numbers of pro and
anti-slavery settlers rushed to Kansas to sway
the vote in their favor. And while they were all there, they began to beat crap out of each other. One of the settlers was
a man named John Brown, a former businessman who failed at just about everything he
tried and went arguably insane. He was a radical abolitionist
and dedicated much of his life to the underground railroad
and freeing slaves. One night in revenge for an earlier rate by pro-slavery forces, he and his sons killed a
number of pro-slavery settlers in the territory, helping to
kick-start years of violence known as Bleeding Kansas. Kansas and Nebraska both
eventually voted in favor of outlawing slavery. But from here, the tension
began to grow at a rapid pace. In 1852 author Harriet Beecher Stowe penned Uncle Tom's Cabin, a bestselling novel that
exposed the terrible cruelty of slavery to the world. How awful. How morally corrupted nation must be to allow such things to happen. Your majesty, what should we do about all the starving children
working in the coal mines? Nothing! In 1854, the Republican party was formed, and Abraham Lincoln emerged
as a leading figure.

Southern Democrats viewed
the new Republican party with mistrust, believing it to
be radical and abolitionist. In 1856 a politician named Charles Sumner gave a speech in Congress, calling out slave owning
Democrats with fiery language, "If slavery was a woman,
she'd be an ugly one. "And the Senator from South Carolina "would like to boink her." Representative Brooks,
do you have a rebuttal? I have a rebuttal, all right? Yeah, here's a rebuttal for you. (loud bangs) Come on, surely this isn't allowed. I dunno. I'll have to consult the rule book. Hmm, I can't find anything about caning a political opponent,
but it says here I'm not allowed to wear a woman's underwear. News of the violence, on the Senate floor took
the nation by storm. Southern slave owners sent
representative Brooks new canes to replace his now broken one.

And on the floors of Congress,
politicians carried weapons in self-defense, which
is never a good sign. In 1857, the Supreme court
ruled in the Dred Scott Case that all people of African descent slave or free could not be citizens and therefore could not
sue for their own freedom under any circumstances, undoing years of progress
with the strike of a gavel. Now within all this
bitter debate over slavery there were many nuances
North versus South, Republican versus Democrat, States versus the federal government.

But let's strip all of that away. For 4 million individuals
living in America, this wasn't about political
intrigue or party alignment. It was about the basic
human right to be free. Men, women and children were
stolen from their homelands and brought to the American
continent where for generations they were considered to be property, forced to live in poverty and work from sunrise to sunset, plantation overseers did whatever they felt was necessary to get
the most out of their slaves. Punishments were often barbaric. Families were regularly separated and parents could often only watch as their children were auctioned off, never to be seen again. Thousands of slaves took
the treacherous risk of running away and
abolitionists in the North helped many escape by the underground railroad. As bounty hunters entered
the North to chase them down.

Leading figures within
the abolitionist movement included many significant
free black men and women. But it's important to note that from many of the anti-slavery
white individuals in the North, opposition to slavery was
often an economic issue, not a moral one. As many worried large plantations
would take their lands and livelihoods away. Abraham Lincoln knew that
slavery was a moral evil and he regularly spoke out against it in powerful speeches that helped him rise through the ranks of the
new Republican Party. He lamented at the hypocrisy of a great American nation meant to stand as a shining beacon of freedom while also enslaving 4 million
men, women and children.

He most famously declared
in 1858 that a house divided against itself cannot stand, that one day, slavery
in America would end. However, even Lincoln was
cautious in his opposition. He didn't want to outlaw it entirely but simply prevent its expansion. So that given enough
time he believed it would naturally die out. Thankfully history would force his hand. In October, 1859 one abolitionist decided he tried to single-handedly take down slavery by force. Who'd be crazy enough to
even attempt such a thing? Ah, it's our good friend, John Brown. He planned to seize arms
from an armory in the town of Harper's ferry, free the slaves there and continue South inciting
a major slave uprising along the way, a noble cause, a bad plan, and terrible execution. Brown's van took the
armory and some hostages but we're quickly surrounded
by one Robert E. Lee and his US Marine. Brown was captured, and
a couple of months later, he was executed for treason.

Northerners sympathized with Brown, but Southerners were like you see this, they're coming for us. Soon, there'll be a million John Browns. A million John Browns? What on earth are you thinking about? The John Brown farm. Yeah, me too. To make matters worse, new Northern free States
meant now the Southern States really were outnumbered
and they were beginning to feel bitterly, spiteful and oppressed. Further fear began to spread in the South, when news broke that a relatively
unknown figure had just secured the Republican party
nomination for president.

Abraham Lincoln mostly well
liked among anti-slavery northerners had made some
of the most powerfully worded speeches against
slavery of any politician at the time. And now there was a chance that he and his cheekbones
could become president, for the South, that would be too much. In the 1860 election, Lincoln's name, didn't
even appear on the ballot in 10 Southern States,
but much to their horror, when the final results came in Lincoln had won by an
electoral college landside Lincoln himself tried to calm their fear. How many times do I have to tell you, I'm not gonna take away your slaves? Yeah, right honest Abe. We've had enough of you northerners. We're gonna go form our own country. You can't do that. Why not? Well, if you had won the election, would it be okay for us to leave? Of course not.

Well, why not? Because that's not how
victim mentality works. Many States felt that
when they joined union they always withheld the right to leave it whenever they pleased. Many people living in 19th
century, America often felt more loyalty to their
state than to the nation. And now with the South feeling
like it had lost its voice in the federal government,
they were out of here. South Carolina was the first to go. And over a period of six months,
one by one 11 slave States officially succeeded from the union with just four contested
border States opting to remain.

The succeeding States issued a number of official documents
justifying their succession. South Carolina proclaimed
that it was Northern States hostility to slavery that rendered the federal government illegitimate. Mississippi declared that their position was thoroughly identified with the institution of
slavery and then a speech. The Confederate vice-president stated that the new Confederate government rested upon what he called the great
truth of racial inequality. Revered American generals, such as Robert E. Lee opted to side with their States over the union. And with all the chaos,
one New York lawyer wrote that rather than a bold
Eagle America's national bird should be a debilitated chicken. And hey, I kind of like that. One man watching the crisis unfold knew it would be his job to solve it.

Lincoln was just about to hop on a train and become the president of
the United States of America. Hey man, you're hella ugly Grow a beard or something
to hide that face. Hmm, good idea. Hmm. Still ugly With assassination plots already underway, Lincoln had to travel to Washington DC, under heavy disguise and protection. All along the way he received
stacks of threatening letters. May the hand of the devil strike you down. You are destroying this country. Damn you every breath you
take, love from, grandma? At his inauguration speech Lincoln once again, reiterated that, no, I do not wanna take
away anyone's slaves but for Lincoln, he did
want to preserve the union. He declared succession to be nothing but an illegitimate rebellion
in your hands and not in mine.

He said is the momentous
issue of civil war. You can have no conflict
without being yourselves the aggressors, we are
not enemies, but friends. It was clear Lincoln was ready
and willing to get freaky and open up a can of
(mumbles) if he had to, whether he had the support of the people, however, was in question. In the end it was the Confederates that fired the first shot. As they succeeded the Confederate States began
seizing federal us property throughout the South. Off the coast of Charleston South Carolina was one such federal property, Fort Sumpter, held by a measly
under supplied US force. The Confederate militia there
demanded the Fort surrender, a request, which was quickly denied and any remaining hope
for a peaceful solution to the secession crisis probably then died when the Confederates did this.

The battle of Fort Sumpter is
considered to be the beginning of the American Civil War. Many of the Confederates
there also considered it to be the end of the American Civil War. They hoped old Abe would just
sign and say, okay, you win. Unfortunately for them,
Lincoln actually said "You're about to get a
roundhouse to the face." Lincoln sent out the call
for 75,000 volunteers and men signed up in droves hopeful for some adventure and
good old fashioned F-U-N. In the new Confederate
Capitol at Richmond Virginia, Confederate president Jefferson Davis and his cheekbones had
also sent out the call for 100,000 men. As ever both sides hope
for a quick end to the war. Is it over yet? No, Jimmy it's been one week. Is it over now? No. How about now? If you ask that one more time I swear I will turn this army around and you'll all have to go back home to your wives and
children (troop cheering). But in particular, the South knew the conflict would
pose a bit of a challenge.

How can we expect to win with a population of only 5 million against
22 million in the North? If you count us 4 million slaves you'd have 9 million, great idea. Hand these rifles to all
the, hey, wait a minute, you almost had me there. The problem for Lincoln was that many of his top generals were getting old and were being a bit too cautious. The commanding general was
a man named Winfield, Scott a veteran of the Mexican American war. And by now he was too fat
to even mount a horse. Okay chaps, we need to come up with a plan, hit me. We could wait for the Confederates
to come and apologize. Maybe we should all sit in a circle and discuss our feelings. Crossing the Delaware into
New Jersey worked for me. Those are all terrible
ideas and you, wrong video. Hey, I'm the greatest president in the history of this nation. Yeah, we'll see about that Dingus. Eventually Lincoln's generals came up with a multi-pronged strategy. First, a blockade would cut off and starve the South of supplies by sea. Secondly, taking control of the great Mississippi
river would sever the South's economic artery
while splitting it into two.

And finally a main union force
in the East would move South and take the Confederate
Capitol ending the war, bada-boom bada-bing. Skirmishes began to break out across the nation and the union army in the East began to move
South towards Richmond. Everything seemed to be going well until they reached Manassas where they came upon a
large Confederate force. It's almost like they were waiting for us. How did they know? As it turned out, spies in
DC had sent a coded message to the Confederates
warning of the invasion. Did you use Nord VPN? What the heck is Nord VPN? I'm so glad you asked. Do you use the internet? Me too. Do you like internet safety? Me too. Hey, we should hang out sometimes, so I can tell you about Nord VPN.

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oversimplified to get 70% off an annual subscription. That's only 349 a month, plus
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supporting my channel. So thank you. Now, where were we? Oh yeah, succession, fat man, and the union invasion into Virginia. The two sites encountered each other at Manassas and both geared up for the first major
battle of the Civil War. The first battle of Bull Run. The Confederates rapidly
brought in support by a rail and the two sites were
about equal in numbers.

However, they were also
equally inexperienced. A large number of civilians also wrote out by carriage from DC to picnic on the nearby hills and
watch the excitement unfold. Nobody seemed to quite understand how destructive this war was going to be. The union forces pulled
a flanking maneuver to hit the Confederates on their left and the two sides fired
on each other in rows. Farm families living in the area were forced to flee the fighting including a man named Wilmer McLean. Hurry up, Martha, there's a war out here. The more you tell me to hurry
up, the slower I will go. The union foresaw initial success pushing the Confederates
back to Henry Hill. But one as of yet, fairly unknown general Thomas Jackson had arrived and he took a defensive position standing from like a Stonewall,
holding the union army off and finally sending them running back to Washington DC with heavy casualties. The sobering reality of
war hit both sides hard and the North having just lost the first major battle had to face
this serious prospect that they may not actually win this war.

President Lincoln, General
Jackson whipped us so hard, the Confederates are calling
him Stonewall Jackson. Wait, that's why they're calling him that? Not because he looks like he ran face first into a Stonewall? Apparently not. Worse yet, the North had also
lost the first major battle out West giving away control
of Southwest, Missouri. All of this was terrible
news for Abraham Lincoln. Especially since many of his generals in cabinet already didn't
have much respect for him. They felt he wasn't
capable of running a war because he seemed a bit like
your friendly old grandpa. He famously loved a long-winded
story and a good pun. I've been so busy.

My wife is missing me, but her
aim is starting to improve. But deep down do you
realized he could also be incredibly shrewd. Oh Abe, you're so funny. Funny how? Funny, like I'm a clown? Abe, I was just. No, no funny how, like
I'm here to amuse you? During the war Lincoln
committed acts that were viewed by some as impeachable. His administration
suppressed the free media from printing articles
sympathetic towards the South. Some Southern sympathizers
were even arrested without a trial. Lincoln's criticizers began
accusing him of being a tyrant but to quote the man himself, "Hey it's war, baby.

"What are you gonna do?" By the end of 1861 with
things already looking bad for the North, abolitionists such as Frederick
Douglas couldn't believe that the union army weren't
enlisting black men. He continued to put pressure
on Lincoln to make the war about emancipation. Mr. President, it's time to
make the war about emancipation. I don't wanna ruffle any feathers. The feathers are already ruffled. But Lincoln hanging on to hope for a quick end to the conflict, continued to fight only for
the preservation of the union. It was decided, however,
that escaped slaves from the Confederacy could
be held as enemy contraband. And many of these men were put to work, bolstering the unions,
infrastructure and supply lines. Hoping to get things moving, Lincoln made young
General George McClellan the new commanding general
and McClellan began to train up his men. He thought a lot of himself,
however, and believed he was going to be the nation's great savior.

Unlike many others, he didn't
approve of the president's handling of the war. On one occasion, Lincoln went
to McClellan's house to meet with him, but McClellan
was late returning home. He kept the president waiting. And when he finally got there, he just straight up went to bed. Now that's what I call disrespectful. McClellan talked the talk,
but could he walk the walk? No, like Lincoln's other generals, McClellan was maddeningly cautious. Hey man, could you move
South and attack the enemy? What are you crazy? What if they have a big,
scary army down there? They probably do. What? Oh my gosh. McClellan worried that he
did not have the numbers he needed to fight effectively.

What if they have like 10,000 men? Okay, no problem. We'll get you 20,000 men. Well, what if they have 30,000 men? I'll need 40. Okay, you can have 40. Well, what if they have 50 I'll need 60. Lincoln tried but it was all in vain. McClellan would not make a
move for the rest of the year. The North's one saving grace for now, was a General out west fighting
Kentucky and Tennessee. General Ulysses S. Grant
cool, collected, methodical and a big fan of whiskey. His chief of staff took it upon
himself to keep Grant sober. One officer said that Grant
habitually worn expression as though he were
determined to drive his head through a brick wall
and was about to do it. And that determination
led him to score a number of key victories when others
around him were failing. At the battle of Fort
Donaldson Grant was like, why does Stonewall Jackson get
a cool nickname and I don't? I want a cool nickname.

Sir, the Confederate say
they're ready to surrender and wanna know your terms. No terms. Just unconditional surrender. Hey, Unconditional Surrender Grant. That's a pretty cool
nickname, right guys, right? Later in April, 1862,
the Confederates launched a sudden attack on Grant's army at Shiloh but the determined
Unconditional Surrender Grant through his lines at the
rebels and sent them running. The battle resulted in
the heaviest casualties in US history so far. And despite his victory, Grant
found himself under fire. You have to get rid of Grant. Why? Didn't he win? Yes, but he just threw
his men at the enemy. Isn't that the point? Also he's a loony drunk. Well, what does he like to drink? I believe whiskey, sir. Then send him more. Lincoln watched as his cabinet
did nothing but bicker. And his generals did nothing
but then worst of all, personal tragedy struck
Lincoln's young son, Willie.

Very much loved by the
president died of typhoid fever at the age of 11. Lincoln was a sensitive man and was heavily effected by the loss. His wife was inconsolable but one of Lincoln's greatest traits, what made him such a great leader was in the darkest of times with composure and determination,
he kept moving forward. He knew it was his
responsibility to hold himself and his family together. And by doing so, he hoped
to hold the nation together and he had had it with
McClellan's in action. Lincoln decided he was gonna take control. In March, 1862 Lincoln firmly ordered McClellan to once again
move South towards Richmond, McClellan insisted
instead they moved by sea to the Virginia Peninsula and attack Richmond from the South East. Yes, said Lincoln. Okay, anything. Lincoln held onto some of
McClellan's men to defend DC from a nearby Stonewall
Jackson wreaking havoc in the Shenandoah Valley. And he sent McClellan South. McClellan landed on the Peninsula and he began to move inland. He came up against a
small Confederate army that had dug in at Yorktown. McClellan vastly outnumbered the force but it said that
Confederate general Magruder deceived McClellan by cleverly maneuvering his smaller force and making McClellan believe
he faced a huge army.

No, you have way more men
than them, move forward. No. McClellan settled in for a
month long siege, giving time for Johnston to move South
from Manassas and Magruder time to retreat. When he finally entered the
city and found it deserted he declared it a victory
calling his success brilliant. Then after meeting some
resistance at Williamsburg McClellan moved to within
just 20 miles of Richmond his Army's able to hear
the church bells ringing in the enemy capital. You still outnumber them.

Go give them hell. No. McClellan once again held back moving slowly and defensively. And with his army split
in two, the Confederate saw an opportunity to strike back. McClellan's advance was halted,
and now the Confederates pulled an ace out of their sleep. General Lee, you're up. Do you think we should evacuate Richmond? No. Mr. President, no need. General. Robert E. Lee, one of the most brilliant
military commanders of the time was now in charge. One of his biggest
strengths was his ability to read the mind of his enemy
and he knew McClellan was cautious and weak after moving
Stonewall Jackson South to join him. And even though he had a
smaller army, Lee hit McClellan in a series of fast paced,
close combat battles that had McClellan spook,
McClellan retreated the union army back again and again and
again, escaping the Peninsula and returning to DC.

Lee had defeated McClellan
and the campaign had failed. Well, that was a major success. A success? Tell me exactly what was
successful about that. Well, we successfully retreated. You lost. I didn't lose. I merely failed to win. Things just kept looking
worse for the North. At least their Navy had seen
some success capturing a number of key port cities, notably
when they steamrolled past Confederate forts
to take New Orleans. And speaking of the Navy both sides have begun using ironclads. So that's pretty cool. But in the East, they still
weren't having any luck. After McClellan's disastrous campaign, Lincoln briefly sent that
one General John Pope to attack Northern Virginia. Hey man, just checking in. How's it going? Well, the Confederates kicked
my butt at Cedar mountain. Then they raided my camp and ran off with my money and clothes. Also, I appear to have been wedgied. Lee defeated Pope at yet another battle at Bull Run in which nearby farm families, once again got caught up in the fighting.

Hurry up, Martha, there's
another war out here. I'm waiting for my hair to dry. Wilmer McLean sick of war
moved his family South where he knew the war would definitely absolutely never touch him again. But Lincoln had yet another
problem to contend with European powers in particular the UK we're looking increasingly like they may intervene diplomatically on the side of the Confederates. They were missing their precious supply of Southern cotton because
of the union blockade. And they wanted to see a
swift conclusion to the war.

The tension between
America and Great Britain had been increasing especially
after Confederate diplomats were discovered on a British ship. Now after McClellan's
failure to take Richmond the UK declared it impossible
for the North to win. Lincoln needed something to prevent Europe from getting involved. And after more petitioning
from abolitionists he decided maybe the time was
finally right to make the war about ending the institution
he hated, slavery. If the North had a noble
cause to fight for, Europe would be less likely to intervene but Lincoln and his
cabinet knew before they could declare something as
radical as emancipation, they needed a victory, especially now that the Confederates were
about to go on the attack. Aware that he had a limited
number of men and supplies, Lee now hoped that if he could just threaten
Washington DC militarily he would gain Europe's recognition and crush Northern morale in time for the midterm elections,
forcing the North to negotiate.

With confidence at an all-time high for the first time Robert
E. Lee invaded the North but on September 13th, the
North finally had some luck. Oh boy, it's my lucky day. That's a garner field. Hey, what's this wrapped around it? Oh my gosh. That's right. The North had discovered
General Lee's battle plans wrapped around some cigars and in them they saw that
Lee had split up his forces McClellan headed out from
DC and the two sides met in the battle of Antietam. A crucial battle that would
decide the course of the war. It saw the most vicious
fighting to date and still remains the single bloodiest
day in American history. But for once the North came out victorious and Lee was forced to retreat. He's on the run, chase him
down and finish them off. No. You know what old buddy
old pal, you're fired. The North had won their crucial victory. Lincoln breathed a huge sigh of relief. And with that wind, he was
prepared to take a huge step on September 22nd, the emancipation
proclamation was issued in January.

All slaves held in the
Confederate States would be as far as the US government was
concerned officially free. Throughout the North
free black men and women rejoiced knowing that
if the North were to win their brothers and sisters would no longer be held in bondage. The proclamation also
had the intended effect on Europe who were not
willing to oppose a pledge to end slavery and outraged
Confederacy knew that Lincoln had given the war a new meaning.

It was no longer just about
the preservation of the union. Now, it was about creating a new union, washed clean of its original sin, a union without slavery. (upbeat music).

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